Raw materials (used tires, medical, plastic, electronic waste, oil refining waste, etc.) are loaded into a vessel of heat-resistant material (retort).
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The retort is placed in the oven. The raw material is heated by heat transfer through the walls of the retort and subjected to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) with the formation of a vapor-gas mixture and carbonaceous residue.The steam-gas mixture is withdrawn from the retort through the pipeline, cooled, the vapor condenses and the resulting liquid is separated from non-condensable gases. The liquid accumulates in the liquid product collector. The gas is partially or completely used to support the process (it is burned in the furnace).At the end of the pyrolysis process, the retort with semi-coke is removed from the oven and a retort with raw materials is installed in the oven.
Retort oven is vertical, lined with heat-resistant concrete and high-temperature heat-insulation on basis of ceramic fiber. At the bottom of the oven there are fire-bars for burning solid fuel and burner device for burning gases. Burning process is intensified by air-blowing system. Retort with raw material is put into the oven from above.
Fridge-condenser is intended for cooling and condensing of vapors. Vapor-gas mixture goes to the fridge-condenser through pipes. Condensed liquid and incondensable gases come into the collector-separator. Collector-separator is a cylindrical tank intended for collecting of pyrolysis oil. Also there drops of liquid are separated from gas flow. Final cleanup of gases from liquid is done in the gas-liquid separator.
Gas goes to the burner device for heating the reactor or to another users. Retort is loaded with raw material outside of the oven in horizontal or vertical position.Retort can be put both in hot and in cold oven. Firtsly, solid fuel is put on fire-bars and set on fire.Burning process is intensified by air-blowing system.
Pyrolysis gas goes to the burning device. As the gas flow increases they decrease air blowing (for burning solid fuel). You determine the end of the pyrolysis process when the gas flow decreases. To get high-quality semi-coke you need to keep process going till gas flow stops completely. As temperature gets lower retort is taken out of the oven and next retort with raw material is put into the oven.
After the process retort cools down in the open air. Then retort is turned over to unload the carbon residue.Heat-resistant concrete and ceramic fiber guarantee durability of liner and oven. Service life of the oven is not less than 10 years. Concrete liner can be refitted. Air-blowing enables burning of low-grade fuels and decreases time of heating the reactor.
Removable retort enables almost continuous process when it stops only for the time required to change retorts. Carbon residue cools down in the open air so you do not need to cool it down with water and that allows to decrease pollution of the environment.